NASA, 2001: “Low Solar Activity = Global Cooling”

[This article was originally published over at on June 13, 2020].

It appears scientific objectivity and a quest for the truth were once permitted, perhaps even encouraged in US government agencies.

Back in 2001, NASA researchers found a strong correlation between low solar activity (namely the Maunder Minimum) and global cooling (namely disruptions to the ozone which impact the jet stream).

Many things can reduce the temperature on Earth, asserts the opening lines of a now archived NASA article, including an erupting volcano swathing the Earth with bright haze that blocks sunlight, and a drop in solar activity.

From 1650 to 1710, temperatures across much of the Northern Hemisphere plunged when the Sun entered a quiet phase now called the Maunder Minimum. During this period, very few sunspots appeared on the surface of the Sun, and the overall brightness of the Sun decreased slightly.

Europe and North America went into a deep freeze: alpine glaciers extended over valley farmland; sea ice crept south from the Arctic; and the famous canals in the Netherlands froze regularly—an event that is rare today.

A team of NASA scientists, led by Drew Shindell at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, set out to discover how low solar activity could cause such a dramatic cooling. The researchers’ first task was to create the Maunder Minimum Temperature Map in order to work out exactly how cold it got:

[Shindell et al., 2001]

By combining temperature records gleaned from tree rings, ice cores, corals, and the few measurements recorded in the historical record, Shindell and his team clearly illustrate in this image the significant impact the Grand Solar Minimum had — the temperature difference between 1680, a year at the center of the Maunder Minimum, and 1780, a year of normal solar activity, as calculated by a general circulation model, is stark.

Deep blue across eastern and central North America and northern Eurasia illustrates where the drop in temperature was the greatest. Nearly all other land areas were also cooler in 1680, as indicated by the varying shades of blue.

The few regions that appear to have been warmer in 1680 are Alaska and the eastern Pacific Ocean, the North Atlantic Ocean south of Greenland, and north of Iceland — the similarities with today are startling.

However, energy from the Sun decreased only slightly during this time. Even during the deepest depths of the Maunder Minimum, solar irradiance hit a low of approx. 1,363 W/m2 from its pre-minimum high of approx. 1,367 W/m2 — not a tremendous difference, so why did temperatures drop so severely across the Northern Hemisphere?

To answer that crucial question, Shindell and his team took the amount of energy coming from the Sun during the Maunder Minimum and entered it into a general circulation model

The model is a mathematical representation of the way various Earth systems—ocean surface temperatures, different layers of the atmosphere, energy reflected and absorbed from land, and so forth—interact to produce the climate.

When the model started with the decreased solar energy and returned temperatures that matched the paleoclimate record, Shindell and his colleagues knew that the model was showing how the Maunder Minimum could have caused the extreme drop in temperatures.

The model revealed that the drop in temperature was related to ozone in the stratosphere, the layer of the atmosphere that is between 10 and 50 kilometers from the Earth’s surface.

Ozone is created when high-energy ultraviolet light from the Sun interacts with oxygen. During the Maunder Minimum, the Sun emitted less strong ultraviolet light, and so less ozone formed.

The decrease in ozone affected planetary waves, the giant wiggles in the jet stream (that weak and wavy ‘MERIDIONAL’ flow).

The change to the planetary waves kicked the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)—the balance between a permanent low-pressure system near Greenland and a permanent high-pressure system to its south—into a negative phase.

When the NAO is negative, both pressure systems are relatively weak. Under these conditions, winter storms crossing the Atlantic generally head eastward toward Europe, which experiences a more severe winter (when the NAO is positive, winter storms track farther north, making winters in Europe milder).

The model results illustrate that the NAO was more negative on average during the Maunder Minimum, and Europe remained unusually cold.

These results matched the paleoclimate record exactly.

The Modern “Eddy” Grand Solar Minimum

With the Sun once again shutting down (relatively), another solar-induced global cooling event is staring us all down.

The years between 1650 to 1710 were a tough time to be alive.

The Maunder Minimum effectively extended the winter months, delivering what was often an Arctic climate to the mid-latitudes. Summer snow became commonplace, and with the associated frosts came the destruction of many a harvest. Food shortages soon led to civil unrest, which in turn quickly led to famine and the removal of the fragile veil that is society: chaos ensued.

Heed the warnings of the past, for climate is cyclic, never linear, and events repeats.

Don’t fall for the bogus warm-mongering political agenda of the day.

Politicians do not have your back. Far from it. They are merely actors following a script.

Prepare for the COLD.

Prepare accordingly — learn the facts, relocate if need be, and grow your own.

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7 Thoughts to “NASA, 2001: “Low Solar Activity = Global Cooling””

  1. Michael Peinsipp

    30° is Northern Florida!
    Hell I’m in KY!

  2. Mystic’s Mystic

    The Tibetan plateau according to the GFS model has had summer snow for two consecutive years now. It is in the northern hemisphere at a fairly low latitude. No one mentions it. I’m wondering if it is real.

  3. Mystic’s Mystic

    What goes up doesn’t necessarily come down.

    GSM = excess moisture in the atmosphere =
    a parallel convective current joining long wave radiation in the dissipation of heat into space. The combination of these two vigorous deleters of heat energy exceeds the ability of the sun to replenish that heat energy loss. There is only one possible outcome. Global cooling.

    The formation of snow in the upper atmosphere has a six-fold compound cascading cooling impact. One thing happens it snows, but the impact is multiplied by six.
    1. The state change from water to ice deposits heat in the upper atmosphere. It is being deposited at the rate of 144 BTUs per pound of water that is converted to snow at the very minimum. This deposited heat will be dissipated into and radiated off into the background temperature of space which is estimated to be -455*f
    2. Snow fall is a key episode governing and controlling the cooling process. For the vertical current to provide cooling there must be a separation between the heat absorbed by the upper atmosphere and the ice that was created when the upper atmosphere surrendered part of its volume of cold or lack of heat. The gravity driven falling snow provides the separation from the heat that was deposited in the upper atmosphere or left behind during the snow formation and state change from liquid to solid. The snow fall also causes an updraft that draws even more heat up from the surface of the earth.
    3. The snow makes a color change to the surface of the earth. The Albedo of the planet is increased. During the advancing spring, sun light will strike the surface of the snow at an obtuse angle reflecting it back into space instead of the earth absorbing that vital warmth. The greater the snow accumulations, the more sunlight is reflected back into space.
    4. When the snow on the ground finally melts it absorbs 144 BTUs per pound of snow, which robs the earth of some of the warming provided by the sun.
    5. The snow melt increases the wetted surface of the earth creating even more opportunity for excess moisture in the atmosphere. Excess moisture creates the possibility of still more snow. Vicious cycle.
    6. The process of water evaporation in and of itself has a cooling effect. The greater the moisture, or the wider the area the moisture covers, the greater the evaporation & the greater the cooling
    7. Lastly just physical damage but that won’t cause the earth to discharge additional heat. The previous six will. The greater the volume of snow, the more acute all of these impacts become. Regenerative feedback. A cooling earth would suggest even more opportunities for additional snow formation. Until this chain is broken by the dormant sun returning to its normal irradiance or there is so much cold & snow that the atmosphere becomes arid, the thermal decline will continue deepening.

  4. sad
    California is marching toward a world where those with wells on their own property will be required to put a meter on them and pay the government,” writes the source. “Because in their world, the government owns everything and we’re just renters.”

    Jared Blumenfeld, Secretary for Environmental Protection. (Photo: California Department of Environmental Protection)
    The letter is signed by Natalie Stork, the Chief of Groundwater Management Program Unit 1, and was sent in late July on the letterhead of California Water Boards, under the authority of Gov. Newsom and Jared Blumenfeld, Secretary for Environmental Protection. Buried beneath the bureaucratic acronyms GSA and SGMA (Groundwater Sustainability Agency and Sustainable Groundwater Management Act) is an extremely aggressive conception of government authority and its dominion over private property.

    if you live in calif get out !!

  5. sad

    -That’s enough to get an average family through three winters.

    he knows what’s is coming…. like his friend al gore and their liars consorts

  6. Jeff Johnson

    My favorite cold weather story was the March Across the Belts where Sweden invaded Denmark from Jutland by marching their army across the frozen seas between major island of Denmark. This was in 1658.

  7. Ice Age Bioelectric Technocracy Control-Eugenics


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